Manumit 1927 Year Book

The Manumit Year Book – 1927

[NOTE: Text below copied from printed document titled “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” — a 38 page, 8-1/4” x 5” booklet with eight photos. (Punctuation and spelling as in original text.) Mike Speer – 2/07] [Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, cover]







William Chaikin ——————————————————— Editor-in-chief

Florence Chaikin ——————————————————- Students Editor

Joseph Budish ——————————————————— Academic Editor

Herman Kutz ——————————————————– Recreation Editor

Stanley Vossler ————————————————————– Arts Editor

Charles Graves ———————————————————-Business Editor






[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, unnumbered page]




If some kind fairy godmother would reveal to me what the future holds in store for Manumit School, I know what picture I should hope to see – a genuinely cooperative community of youthful spirits, animated with the joy of life, the zest for adventure, and a normal childish desire to seek out and understand the ways and the wherefores of all things seen and unseen; a group which can stabilize its philosophy without chrystallizing [sic.] its procedures; which can constitute an experiment station in the history of pedagogy; which will serve as a demonstration to the Labor Movement of the possibilities of free education as an integrating life experience.

The framework of the picture is clear cut. Its external relationships are already well worked out. Manumit School is directed and controlled by the Manumit Associates, a voluntary group of men and women actively identified with the Labor Movement or with education. Numerous trade unions and labor federations have given the school their endorsement. Educators of renown have commended it. Generous and kind friends contribute toward its support. The possibility for growth and development are infinite indeed.

But the real future of Manumit lies in the hands of the boys and girls, who with their teachers will live here and work here; who by struggle and achievement, trial and error, perseverance and loyalty to their own best selves, will trace a pattern that others may follow in solving and integrating the problems of their lives.

[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 1-2]



by Mrs. Helen Hamlin Fincke

Co-Founder of Manumit School

Dear little old —–

It is so long since I have seen you – and Manumit – that I just thought I would write you some of the things I have been thinking. Whenever I hear echoes from Manumit that are not quite harmonious, I remember how I felt one night in June after school had closed our first year, and all you beloved kids had gone away for the summer. The second annual conference of the Manumit Associates was being held, and the subject under discussion was something like this: —

“How shall we interpret to Labor and other groups the importance of Manumit School?” A Philosopher had addressed us, a great man, and also several others. They had talked and talked endlessly and seemed to lose themselves in whole forests of words as to what each one meant that was different from what the others thought; it was hot, everyone was wilted and tired, and it was nearing midnight. We were no nearer finding out what we meant, and had forgotten why we were there!

Suddenly I thought of you, little comrade. I saw you in my mind’s eye, standing up in that selfsame old School Room, and speaking to our little school meeting in such a “still” voice, and with such swift and sure vision of the truth that we had all been seeking. I could head you say

“Let’s remember what the word “Manumit” means; “It frees from slavery” That’s why we have self Government. But Self Government is a poor way of putting it – I like Self Direction better.” And then you had told the school meeting just what the Manumit Spirit Committee had talked about; how self direction is better than self government because “government sounds as though there were foolish things you were trying to keep yourself from doing at the time: but self direction meant you were so busy getting somewhere, you had time for foolish things. Also you told us that the chief “slavery” Manumit frees people from is the slavery of wanting what we want when we want it, regardless of the welfare of the rest of the group.

From thinking of you, and the way you lived the truth as well as explained it to us, I though of all the rest of the children, and of how often in a hard school meeting S— or H— or E— or you or G— or some other would calmly straighten us out. A hard problem would be solved with beautiful simplicity by coming back to the fundamental question, “After all, why are we at Manumit?”

The answer would always be something like this.

“Manumit exists to develop boys and girls of the Labor Movement into men and women, self controlled, who know how to cooperate with their comrades for the social good; who because they have learned to think clearly, cannot be fooled; because they know how to live creatively, cannot be turned into human machines; because they know by experience how hard it is to live freely and wisely at the same time, will be able to show other men and women the meaning of true freedom. Men and women, in other words, who will not be lost to the Labor Movement — as so many children of Labor are today — will understand and help it indirectly, and at most will bring it clear heads, healthy, self-disciplined bodies, and joyous sprit.”

That night at the Conference I suddenly knew that all we needed was for you Manumit boys and girls to come trooping in singing and that if you were only with us, you could tell all those word-slingers what it was all about. So I stood up and got the floor as your representative, and told them for you just what you would said.

—, won’t you think about all this, and see if you can bring back into the life at Manumit some of that old time peace? Self direction is better than self government!



[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” Excerpt, page 3]


To the Yearbook:

A great many grown-ups have been worrying a lot about Education, especially about how to make our efforts in education count toward the hoped-for objective of a better social order than the one in which we now live. I wonder if the members of Group VI have always credited the grown-ups with generous motives when it may have appeared that despised “propaganda” was about to be offered in class discussion or in assembly programs. It may be that grown-ups are often over anxious at times, and do try short-cuts in promoting the acceptance of ideas which they believe will save the world. But the fact is, if the youngsters don’t take up with programs for social betterment there is small chance for the programs. The chief reason for this is the fact that adults as a rule are tired hand and foot with the restrictions, conventions and compromises of things as they are. On the other hand, the youngsters are free, and while they are free they can take leaps ahead and carry the world with them.

The only question I, are the youngsters intelligent enough to “look before they leap,” and to land in a safe place in a sound footing! The effective thing to do in education, therefore, is for schools to provide the technic [sic.] by which young people may be trained to leap- effectively, and more than all else, to want to make a leap.

In Manumit we are in the process of establishing a labor school which we hope will do this very thing.

Through the new educational procedure of learning by doing the work we like to do as we find it pays to do it, we discover that it is a pleasure to become educated.. Incidental to the learning process, we learn how to think. We learn for more power and understanding, and we are ready to leap for it. Furthermore in our learning we soon come to realize that if anything positive is to come out of our hope for a better educational order our efforts must be supported by as strong a social force as we can tie to. It is now coming to be thought that the labor movement itself is one of the most constructive of all social forces. Bu those of us who have associated with it for many years, it is regarded as the most potent of all existing social movements.

To associate the new educational procedures with the labor movement in a school that would help to point the way to a better social order in which young people may contribute to the inspiration and the leadership, was the dream of William and Helen Fincke. I hope it will also be the high desire of those who follow after them at Manumit.

(signed by) Henry R. Linville.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 4-5]




Manumit Faculty


Henry R. Linville, A.B. Kansas Univ. A.M., Ph.D. Harvard Univ. Director

Nellie M. Seeds, A.B. Byrn Maur; Ph.D. Univ. of Penn. Executive Secretary.

Leon E. Cartmell, A.B. George Washington Univ. A.M. Columbia. Woodshop and Group Two Teacher.

Sarah N. Cleghorn, Radcliffe College. Writer of Verse and Fiction. English and Group Three Teacher.

Margery Newcomb Wilson, A.B. Vassar, Pratt Institute. Special teacher in Arts and Crafts.

Charles H. Graves, B.S. Cornell University. Natural Science and Group Six Teacher.

Susan M. dePeyster Graves, A.B. Adelphia College. Dramatics and Group One Teacher.

William W. Biddle, A.B. Pomona College and Columbia. Social Science and Group Four Teacher.


Louriede J. Biddle, A.B. Pomona College and Columbia. Special Teacher in Music.

Wesley Eastman, A.B. Penn State A.M. Columbia. Group Five Teacher.

Sidney Henderson S. C. Cornell Agriculture and Penn State. Farm Superintendent.

George Hamilton, Ph.B Wesleyan College Farm Helper.

Heinz Gechter, College of Agriculture Hamburg, Germany. Farm Helper.

Annetta McLauren, B.S. Syracuse University. Dietician.

Mary Loller Cook.

Pauline Stoney, R.N. Harlem Hospital N.Y.C. School Nurse

Einar Jensen, Denmark College of Agriculture. Supt. Of Buildings and Grounds.



Raymond Fuller is doubtless in New York.

Richard Kilpatrick is reported to be somewhere on Staten Island.

Stella and Wallie Sasman are living in New Jersey.

Alfred Taylor is somewhere between here and the next world.

Joseph Kusner is in Florida.

Raymond Rubinow is probably studying in New York.

Ava Hilbert is somewhere between New York and Ohio and perhaps married.

Bernard Chernoff is in Danbury, Conn.

Dorothy McLaren probably resides somewhere west of the Alleghanies

Ernst Schleiffer has probably returned to his home in Buffalo.

Florence Erskine Teal, and Eduard J. Teal are somewhere in Ohio.

Frieda Finckle has not been heard from.

Mary Stevens is now at Barnard College, New York.

Stanley Dowley is reported to be in New Jersey.

Martin Baeadrsley is somewhere in New York.

Foster Armstrong has not been heard of.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 6]





Florence Chaikin Jean Rosenthal

William Chaikin Herman Kutz

Joseph Budish Stanley Vossler



Frieda Gusman Gesa Saroff

Anne Nederhoed John Fincke

Emanuel Cohen Heinz Hohenwald

Victor Rapkin Sydney Goldberg


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 7 & 38]



(by Group Six)


Before the Group system was adopted, certain student members of the community naturally formed a good social grouping; this happened at the close of one of our Chemistry classes, at which time it was suggested that we go off the school grounds and have a Western Egg Supper. We betook ourselves to the fields of a Mr. Silverman and there we had our famous Western Eggs. While we were enjoying our supper, we decided that perhaps it would not be so bad if we could get together now and then and discuss anything that we saw fit such as, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, Judaism, and Christianity, propagandism [sic.] and school life.

During Christmas vacation, it appears that the Faculty made plans to have six academic groups. When we got back we found ourselves together in Group VI; and so began our official life. The original group started out with Sparky, Florence, Stanley, Bill, Joe, and Herman. Our interests were as varied as our ages, which ranged from fourteen to sixteen.

Our most interesting times were spent in the Social Science class. There we discussed all conceivable topics on which we though we had opinions. Among our interesting conferences on Imperialism, of which there were many, the Chinese question came up. Bill Biddle, our Social Science teacher, at our request invited Mr. Baldwin Lee, a Chinese post-graduate student at Teacher’s College, Columbia to tell us about China from the eyes of the Cantonese. His information enlightened us a great deal. We have since been following up all of the periodicals on China and are hoping to get Mr. Less up here again to explain the latest peculiar events. We also talked about propoganda [sic.] in forms such as; newspapers, magazines, plays, motion pictures, and the mails, and schools. We decided that the government should be democratic enough to be surer of itself than of its people, and not use public mails as a method for spreading prejudiced views. Since the schools were founded for the people, supposedly by the people, for the object of educating people academically, not politically, — by that we mean—my country—right or wrong and that sort of thing — we think that if any views are discussed and put forth, — then all views should be allowed to be expressed by teachers and students.

(Continued on page 30[actually 38])

(Continued from page 7)

Perhaps when we describe our English work, you will think that it does not seem particularly extraordinary. But it was, in the sense that we could say whatever entered out heads about Shakespeare for instance; we had class disputes as to whether or not Shakespeare ever wrote: — we argued as well as we could with our little knowledge. We studied in a hurried fashion – Milton, Dante, Bunyan and several poets of that time. To test our knowledge of literature, Aunt Sally, our English teacher, gave us a questionnaire to answer which required considerable thought because the questions were in relation to our every day life and, if we did not watch out, we were sometimes caught in our answering.

Feeling somewhat gypped because each group had an assigned room, with which it could do as it liked, we decided to form plans for a house by way of appeasing ourselves. We took our ideas to the Art Teacher, who gave us a bit of information now and then that helped us along. Mechanical drawings were made — the plans for the whole house were ready for use, but it was only a way of making ourselves feel good – of course we could not build. We had, as you understand become very much interested in architecture. At about this time we were told about an Architectural Exhibit held in the Grand Central Place and or course we had to go! We were given permission to go. Charles Graves, our group teacher, had been to the exhibit and knew where all the interesting things were. He escorted us around, and we enjoyed his choices very much. Margery, the Art Teacher, came along with us and she told us a great many things about the paintings we saw. We wandered around the place and the thing that got us was the fact that materials were dressed to look like something else; — for instance, cement was made to look like wood, so that it could fool a woodpecker.

It seems that the Gods relented and thought the better of what they did not give us (group room). One day Charles told us that we had been asked if we would be willing to take one of the big rooms in the Main House which happened to be vacant and make it into a library for the community. The Superintendent of buildings would help us with some of the carpentry. We hesitated, asked questions and finally said yes. We decided on the color of the woodwork, and kind of paper. A Mr. A. M. Todd gave the Group a gift of $100 for the furnishings for which we are very grateful. Now the place looks very nice.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 8 & 35]



(by Group Five)

Here is as cosmopolitan a group of young individuals as one will often expect to see gathered together. We are more homogenous in age than in any other way that we might be grouped. As far as advancing years is concerned, we fall midway between the period of bloom which precedes approaching senility, that the “Stunt age”, twelve to fifteen years.

Our true cosmopolitan character becomes apparent only when you review with us our geographical perambulations and our radical genealogies. There is Anne Nederhoed, for instance, the “lady with the delicate air,” whose chief claim to a decoration by the Royal Geographical Society is that she was born in Australia and touched on the shores of England and other countries become becoming thoroughly “Americanized.’ Now she is one of the standard bearers of our old Dutch ancestors who first tried to save this country from the ways of the tomahawk. Heinz Hohenwald, came recently from the German fatherland and Berlin has no less claim to distinction.

The rest of us, however, have been buffeted more within local boundaries and contribute a great variety of native experiences to our democratic life. Manny Cohen might tell you something of the “chams” of “Havad” and then give your educational imagination a jolt by thrusting you into the midst of his Stelton comrades at the Modern School, where at one time you might also have met Victor Rapkin and Sidney Goldberg. Besides having been students at Stelton, these two latter members of our group base their present ambition for a position in the hall of fame on the fact that they live in Staten Island and Flatbush respectively.

In addition to those of our number already mentioned, there are the rest of us with our talents running to music, literature, the open spaces, and nothing particular at all. Gussie Saroff, literary genius, is somewhat of a Chicagoan, though at present she finds her abode among the cliffdwellers [sic.] of Chicago’s

(Continued on page 35)

(Continued from page 8)

larger eastern city, a suburb of the Bronx, the home of our Prima Dona, Freida Guzman. The metropolis of Bedford Hills and its schools is made famous by a no lesser person than John Fincke who carries the air of “the farmer.”

When you think of all the years that have been and all that are still to be, it is no less than a miracle that we, these particular eight people, should be so intimately associated as to be in Group V at Manumit School during the Spring term of the school year, 1926-1927. But to lay aside any consideration of all the elements of chance which contribute to our reasons for coming to Manumit, it is sufficient to mention one or two factors which led to the creation of our group at the beginning of the second term. Why are we? Is a philosophical question that may stump anyone. We are a faculty creation. Possibly this group of guardian pedagogues though that the group plan would give us more opportunity to “be together and help each other out” than the previous plan had done; or perhaps that it would “give us a better chance to study’; or still perhaps since this is an experimental school, they simply “wanted to experiment in order to see how the plan would work”.

AT the beginning of the third term our group suffered a split and the feminine graces were removed to other quarters. Before and after the break, however, we undertook some constructive work to improve our classroom, which would remain at Manumit as a monument to our efforts at a group. Since our organization, we have painted our room, made a book case, and begun the task of painting it, along with the other furniture. This still remains to be completed. Our present purpose is “better education”, which takes the form for some of us of an effort to pass Regents examinations.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 9 & 37]




Group Four was originally partly a “gang” of the school. We fought and yelled and got into trouble about the school with a spontaneous joy and commonness of purpose. Our ability for making noise and getting into trouble is now no less, but perhaps more useful for the school in general.

Before Christmas, we met together, Ralph Taylor, Sam Nooger, Sid Danzis, Sascha Winnick, and Simon Wilson, and Bill Biddle. These including also Gussie Saroff, used to meet on Monday mornings for an hour. Unfortunately Simon had to leave the school about Thanksgiving, leaving a hole in our group which was filled later by Jack Hawley.

Our first interest turned to a study of the difference of men and women, boys and girls. We were genuinely curious about sex; so we got a number of books, read them, and discussed the matter, till we felt we had a better grasp of the subject. Incidently [sic.], during this time we were getting better acquainted with each other, learning to trust each other more, and spending as much time as ever in the daily cat and dog fight”. A dinner and party added to this getting together.

We discussed plan for the Manumit Tribune before Christmas vacation, when we were still a social group. Quite a bit of material was collected for the first issue. We also made a list of about six names for the paper and from these names Tribune was picked, some of the other names were Mirror, Courier and Eco.

The real work of the paper, however, came after the vacation. This consisted of getting an arrangement whereby we could have our paper linotyped to suit our limited finances. This ought to be a good time to tell that the faculty voted us an appropriation of three dollars a week since we do not get enough from the sale of the paper to cover the cost of linotyping. We found somebody to do our linotyping so we immediately set to work assembling the paper. The first edition was gotten out on January twenty-sixth, after a series of failures due to smashed type. The first edition sold about one hundred copies which compared with the sale of later editions is wonderful. The Tribune was kept up for fifteen editions so far, — that is at the time of this writing, May seventeenth.

It was our original plan to get the news from outside by radio, this was later abolished for we thought that two projects

(Continued on page 37)

(Continued from page 9)

were too many for our small group, and keeping the Tribune going was enough for us.

We took over the movies on March the 9 th. The first picture being “Moonstone”, ten reels. We have been showing movies weekly ever since, until the last few week when we have been showing them ever other week. The Manumit Tribune Refreshment service was organized for the Faculty-Student baseball game, without much profit. After this things did not go so smoothly, we nearly went bankrupt on the fifteenth edition, so we tried advertising that brought us thirty-five cents.

On February second we sent a challnge [sic.] to Group Five to play them in basketball. This was accepted. During the practice which preceded the game we played a practice game with Group Six in which we won by close score of 10-9. The following evening we played Group Five when they overpowered us with a score of 8-2.

We are planning to get out a special edition for the Spring festival. This edition will include a number of cuts as well as some short stories of school life in general and other special features. This will be the last edition of the year. We plan on spending the last few weeks of school in cramming for examinations and other such unfortunate experiences in store for us after Manumit.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 10]





Roelf Taylor Sascha Winnick

Gordon Linville Sydney Danzis

Samuel Nooger John Hawley



June Lostar Dorothy Costrell

Thomas Feigenbaum



Ian Ballantine Byron Linville

Abraham Nooger Leon Rosenthal

John Thompson, Jr.; Henry Linville

Nancy Muste Adele Lubin



Ruth Wollman Betty Conwit

Leon Fidler Douglas Tompson

Jeremy Graves David Graves


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 11]



(By Group Three)


On January 5 th the school went into a group system. In Group Three there were the following; — Aunt Sally, our group teacher; Dorothy Costrell, June Lostar, Byron Linville, Jack Hawley and Tom Feigenbaum. At first there was a great deal of confusion in our group, and also a great deal of rough-housing. Our group room was the old Library, a large old-fashioned room, with a big fireplace, low ceilings, and cosy [sic.] corners.

The most important thing we did was to start a magazine that we called the Telescope. This was a weekly of eight or ten pages, of which we typewrote on an average fifteen copies, and which contained poems, stories, play, editorials, jokes original and selected, and other humorous and burlesque material, practically all written by members of the group. This we carried on for eleven weeks and then selected the best contributions and issued them together in a Review.

In the meantime two of our members had gone into other groups — Jack and Byron. And meantime we had repainted the whole interior of our room — ceiling, walls and shelves, fireplace and floor, and had newly upholstered chairs, new curtains etc.

We once decided to drive to Poughkeepsie to look through the Vassar telescope — but the truck broke down, and we got no further than Dover Plains. We were more successful on another trip; we spent a very pleasant and

interesting day at the Natural History Museum of New York, and had a short visit with Dad Fincke at the apartment on the way home.

We have also made puppets for a puppet show, with four stage settings.; In everyday work — Arithmetic, Geography, History and English we took sample Regents’ examinations as a test of our knowledge. We expect in June to take the regular Regents’ examinations for High School.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 12]



(by Group Two)


Group II began as the only group in the School. Most of us were new students and had to get acquainted with each other and the school. We organized our Group with a Chairman and other officers. We opened a bank and arranged our other school activities. At the beginning of the second term our Group was divided and we then rearranged our schedule providing hours for study and hours for projects involving work in the woodshop, the studios and outdoors. Under this system we continued until the end of school.

A special feature was introduced when we moved into the woodshop, where we had a stove. We cooked several suppers and had a group party or two, as a part of our “housekeeping” project.

During the third term the Group has been all boys, as the two girls remained home after the Spring Vacation. Our chief project then became a water mill down on the brook.

The Group has been self-governing and at the end of the year’s experience we consider that it has been a success. In truth, all of our year’s work has been generally a happy experience.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 12-13 & 32]



(by Group One)


Group I came into being at the beginning of the Winter Term, with Sue Graves as their official leader. They were assigned to the class-room of the former Group I at Clark House, and spent the first few days in cleaning and putting their room into an order to suit themselves, and in deciding upon their activities for the coming term and pu8tting them into a schedule. The schedule consists of mathematics, spelling, art classes, and music in the mornings; the afternoons were left free for project work in farming and cooking, for geography and history, and for English which included memory work, reading, both silent and aloud, grammar and composition.

This schedule worked very well. The popular thing to do of an afternoon was to read “A Child’s History of the World”. Geography was not admitted to our presence except under a heavy alias. Wednesday we had cooking. Thursday afternoons we gave ourselves parties in front of the open fire in the Clark House living room and there we ate sandwiches and cookies and read raptly on the Child’s History. Other projects that we busied ourselves at were down at the barns and over in the workshop. Betty made some very good furniture.

Our English composition had a way of turning into letter-writing, but one day toward the end of the winter term, one Thursday afternoon, when Sue was reading from Douglas’ book “The Firelight Fairy Book”, we came upon a story called “The Lost Half Hour”. It appealed to Leonard as being a good story to dramatize for our group to give. So we read it again and as we read it, we chose our parts and worked out scenes and dramatic moments of presentation. But alas! It called for many more people than we had at our command. Well, we could ask Group II if they would help us. So, soon, we went calling to their room and read them the story and explained what we wanted. They were very enthusiastic and helped a lot, especially Ian who had a number of new ideas. We began to make our costumes and properties, such as horses and dragons, right away. All of Group I wrote their own parts. Leonard who had conceived the idea of the play and had worked so hard on the planning of it, had to go home because of illness and was not with us on the Thursday evening before Spring vacation, when we gave it.

The Spring term has gone on, under much the same schedule as the Winter term. We have not had cooking or farming. Betty and Ruth have been taking French with Nellie Seeds and Leonard who did not come back until May, has been diligently applying himself to catching up the rest of his fellows. We have been adding and substracting [sic.] fractions and doing problems which involve these operations; we have been doing spelling or-

(Continued on page 32)

(Continued from page 13)

dinarily given sixth grades, each day nearly, we choose the words which we will have in test the next day. We take turns choosing the words and are not at all afraid of long words like “interrogative”, “Trafalgar”, “denominator”, “revolution”, or of the catchy one like “believe” and “receive”. We have been studying the life of a sentence, the kinds, and the parts, and the punctuation which adorns them. We read “The Irish Twins” which lead us into a fascinating study of the fairy tales of foreign countries. We read fairy stories from Japan, Ireland, early England, France, South America countries, and others. We have written reviews about these fairy tales and compared them with each other and with fairy stories which we have known since our early childhood…….

We have picked out two plays from our reading which we want to put on before school closes, but we must wait until the Spring Festival is over for we are busy now, being the chorus in the operetta, as well as taking part in the Russian picture of the Labor pageant.

It is true that we are the smallest children on the campus, but there isn’t any other group that can beat us at concentration, perseverance, and resolution. And those three words mean keep at it, keep at it, keep at it.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 14]




—two, three four; the last bell for breakfast on Monday morning. a scramble to be first in line at the serving table — the Community Council in the regular meeting the day before made the cafeteria style breakfast an official order — Bill’s stern glare?? Calms the eagerness and the first in line meekly takes his food to find a place at the table with the largest cream pitcher — A few [sic.] floor, and had newly upholstered chairs, new curtains etc. more are served — Wild shouts !!! the door bursts open and the boys from the “Middle Dorm” in the Gym come in in their usual mouse like stillness — A gloomcaster [sic.] groans on discovering that breakfast consisted of oatmeal, applesauce, and toast — maybe he expected ham and eggs with French fried — business at the counter is quiet… the hands of the clock approach closing time…. The Clark House ‘gang’ arrives, all save one, a few minutes sees them at the tables… The gong by the door days, quiet, please, and the waiter announces, “Line closes in three minutes”… The line forms for seconds and soon “Line Closed” makes itself heard above the ordinary sound of voices and dishes. The door is flung open, a small boy with a desolate look says, “Aw Gee, am I late (–deleted) “Better luck next time” was the only answer and soon tables were cleared… dishes were being washed… the vegetable squad were preparing vegetables for dinner… different individuals were at their separate tasks such as sweeping studyrooms hallways, dormitories, and in one short hour the morning tasks were over. Of course, many things could be more perfect and older hands might do more finished jobs but we get there just the same.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 15]




Sometimes in the late afternoons or evenings, or on a rainy Sunday, we have had a Poetry Party. Everybody who came was expected to read aloud a poem he liked. We sat on chairs and tables and on the windowsills and the floor, and the first boy (chosen at random) would read the “Ballad of East and West”, and then he would choose another boy, and that one would read the “Man With the Hoe”, and choose a Middler [sic.] girl, and she would read something by A. E. and the next would read “Casey at the Bat”, and the next Mansfield’s “Cargoes.” And there were always some enthusiasts present who wanted to read more than one.

Sometimes we have had Definitions Parties, especially on a right winter evening with a good blazing fire in the old fireplace. Everybody had to bring a word he wanted to argue out a definition for. The words we used to get most interested in were deep, ample words like “create”, “religious”, “time”, “freedom”, etc. Though we might discuss one word for half an hour, we always drifted finally to a definition which satisfied us all fairly well.

Sometimes we had Portrait Parties. The “ticket of admissions” was a written sketch of some member of the community. We sat in a ring and read our portraits in turn. Many were thumbnail sketches, but even of these, some were genuinely analytic. Everybody had one guess at every portrait. It was extraordinarily interesting, first to see how swiftly right three quarters of the guesses were, and second to note that at every such party two to six character sketches of really sustained merit would appear.

These sketches were generally frank and bold, but literally never discourteous.

Sarah N. Cleghorn


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 15 & 18-19 & 33]




The Creative Music Department at Manumit School is only a year old. Consequently it has not the background of materials and experience of a long established department, but it does have the

(Continued on page 34 [sic. p. 18])

(Continued from page 15)

goodwill and hearty cooperation of all the members of the community. The students clamor for time in the studio. Student activities center about a number of clubs. At the beginning of this school year all work was done about club grouping. The last two terms each group has had its own special music work in addition to club work.

Foremost in popularity, and perhaps in achievement too, is the Orchestra Club. The club meets once a week, and all members endeavor to act “professional” for an hour. The instruments are unique. One section of the orchestra is filled by the Ocarina Club. It is made up of six members, who throughout the year have learned to read music and can do at the present time two, three and four part work. One or two bases, one tenor, three or four soprano ocarinas are used. The number and kind varies as some ocarinists [sic.] can play two or more of the types. Another important section of the orchestra is composed of two Marimbists [sic.]. At times a third performer is in evidence at which times two persons play on one instrument at a time. In the wind section are also a number of eight-toned Trumpets, a set of unique glass-bottle-Pipes-of Pan, and a Cornet. In the stringed section are a number of Ukuleles the number varies from time to time) and an Autoharp (a beautiful homemade Cello has been available, but has not yet made the orchestra.) The traps deserve special mention. An unusual trap stand with sleigh bells, brass pipe-lengths, a tom-tom and clappers stands available. A drum is of course in evidence. Since an orchestra seems to need a leader she sits at the piano and directs from that position. The Orchestra Club has given a number of recitals to the community throughout the year. It has also given one education demonstration at the New York Civic Club in New York City. Recently the Club journied [sic.] down to Brookwood Labor College where its members entertained the students there with club numbers, quartets, music pantomimes, and vocal solos. All these programs put on by the club have been a great success as those who have heard them will testify. Folk


songs, original Manumit compositions, semi-classics and classics are in the Orchestra Club’s repretoir [sic.].

The Singing Club deserves second place. Its members have done some very fine two part work. After Christmas vacation the first operetta ever given by Manumit folks was performed. Both faculty and students enjoyed participating in it. It made a splendid impression on everyone. Two other operettas were given for the Spring Festival. “The Rose and the Pearl” was a fairy tale and allowed the youngsters especially to exhibit their dancing ability. “Powder Puff, Please,” the other operetta, was written by Manumitters [sic.] and consequently should be commended because the school is proud to produce original things. Of course Singing Club members took leads in all three of these operettas.

The Composer’s Club has produced some fine music. Original melodies, songs and the operetta mentioned have been written by members of this group. Other people, not belonging in the club have written original music, but hose in the club have spent hours of hard, creative effort on their compositions. An exhibit of some of these original numbers proved very interesting to all — especially those timid souls who longed to write but feared to do so.

Group One and Two have worked independently of clubs or other groups. They have done some fine construction work, Indian tom-toms, a variety of box drums and pipe-of-Pan have been made. Group One has its Junior Orchestra, its Singing Club, and its Rhythmic and Folk Dancing Club. This group has done some very nice music dramatization. Little Red Riding Hood, and a number of shorter stories as well as imaginative material have formed the basis for interpretive dancing. Group Two has had its own activities and has done a great deal along the line of music appreciation. It has also supplied from time to time some valuable member to the Orchestra Club.

Anyone visiting the Music Studio today would be extremely

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(Continued from page 19)

interested in the instruments collected there. Pop bottles, tuned to a scale, all varieties of drums, a cello, two Egyptian harps, several sets of Pipes-of Pan, bamboo flutes and many other home-constructed instruments adorn the walls and shelves. Add to these the good supply of manufactured instruments available and one is convinced that the studio today, although but one year old, provides excellent opportunities for all musically inclined or musically aspiring souls.

Loureide J. Biddle


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 16-17]




No, we scarcely know the rules of perspective or color as such, we do not study, “object drawing,” “Commercial design” or any other of the many branches of this field at regular times. But we do, learn all the time how to better express our own ideas and feelings in many different ways, such as clay, paint, weaving, etc. And, although we have very beautiful natural surroundings, the boys usually prefer to draw and paint ships, cowboys, Indians, animals, houses, naval battles, etc., — the twentieth century with its thrills – if not the twenty-first! Of course, all of us do not draw, but about an [sic.] of us do some kind of craft or construction work. And one can get a lot made when one has as much time as we have, three to five hours a week on the average!

At a guess I should say that linoleum block cutting and printing has been the craft with the widest and most enduring appeal. Most of us have made several blocks, and, the height of the craze witnessed the following or a “Cut Company” which, I understand, did some business. By the way I have had to keep; sending for weaving material I should call this fascinating craft the second in popularity. The twenty-three people who have woven have produced twenty-five neck scarves, eighteen rugs, seven striped pillow tops, six table and bureau covers, and other small pieces, making a total of two and a half pieces per weavers. We have had four looms, — our big rug loom 40 in. wide. Benny Fincke’s loom 20 in. wide, and two 8 in. wide structo looms. Several pieces have had pattern borders woven in by the pattern string-up in the heedless and I am happy to say that I have had very little to do with stringing up the looms, as the students did most of this themselves. The leather work was very absorbing as usual. We made bill-folds, purses, book-marks, knife-sheathes, belts, (with store buckles sewed on) pistol holsters, etc. These were decorated in a variety of fashions, such as tooling, painting, hammering with stamps, and even with a little bead work. The cardboard construction projects were very numerous. Portfolios, photograph albums, folding correspondence cases with a blotter and two


pocket, book-covers and notebooks were made in great variety. Particularly charming objects were made with the help of lovely wall-paper which Charles and Sue Graves brought us from Pawling. Among other crafts and construction work which we have taken up at different times this year I should mention plasticene [sic.], and clay modeling, making plaster bas-reliefs, and reed basketry. There has also been batik, tyed [sic.] and dyed work, and stenciling dolies and table runners to some extent, too.

Since the group system started several partial and wholly group projects have been completed. Among these I might particularly mention the following, Group Two and Leon did excellent work on the stage signs, shields, horses, dragon, etc., for their play called “The Lost Half Hour.” Some members of Group; Three painted color scenes for their class room and later used their art periods for actually redecorating the room with Sally Cleghorn and Margery Wilson. The appearance of the Tribune Office was enlivened by colorful transparent ship designs for some of the small window panes by some of Group Four. They look gay when the sun shines through them, especially Bill Biddle’s. Group Six worked hard and long on floor plans for their projected group dormitory and Stanley Vossler completed several elevations of the same house. I think it is very nice for the group teachers all to be able to work in the studio with their groups, as well as on their own projects, don’t you? I hope you all have seen Sue’s pretty rugs, Leon’s tray and scarf, Wesley’s ambitious allegory, and Charles portfolios, stenciling, and rag rugs. Loureide and I wish we could go to each other’s studio’s too!

It is not so much what we make, as how we make it that counts. Is the product of our hands the result of our sincere thought and inspiration, of patient effort, and of the most painstaking craftsmanship of which we are capable? Then it is well on the way towards being beautiful. It is my earnest wish that all my Manumit friends may continue increasingly to feel the joy of being able to create useful and beautiful things with their own hands throughout their lives.

Margery Newcomb Wilson


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 20 & 31]




The dramatic work this year has been done under the patronage of the Recreation Committee and covers an interesting and varied field ranging from thje spontaneous pantomimes which groups so cleverly gave at several Monday morning assemblies by way of illustrating different historical episodes, to the presentation of Lord Dunsany’s “Golden Doom” which represented a full term’s work and thought both in memorizing lines and in costume designing. The “Golden Doom” was one of the earliest plays to be given this year. Group I studied and gave it the evening before we went home for our Christmas vacation. Later in the winter, Group V put on a play called “White Elephants”. This was a good play but was not taken vary seriously by the cast, I am afraid. The end of the winter term saw two evenings of drama. One of these was an original composition by the same ambitious actors who had put on “The Golden Doom”. It was based on a fairy tale and was complete with beautiful ladies and gallant knights in shining armor, prancing horses, and roaring dragons. Most of the children wrote their own parts as well as made the properties, the fiery steeds and that “Fearsome Beast the dragon. “The Lost Half Hour” was the title of this play which was really the most colorful spot in our dramatic year. It stands brightly out with the contagious humor and frolicking of make-believe. The last last evening we saw a “crook” play full of suspense well done, the glitter of jewels, and the sounds of pistol shots. This exciting play was balanced by a delicate bit of whimsical Irish love making.

The Spring term started off with the most strenuous program one ever contemplated outside of a school of acting. Eighteen plays in twelve weeks! But even more strange was the fact that it went even beyond the planning. Every group in school started learning parts, — Group IIIK had one of Lady Gregory’s comedies, Group IV had an impromptu bit of fooling, Group V had a farce, Group VI had a tragedy, Group I and II read fantastic comedies.

(Continues on page 31)

(Continued from page 20)

And then, in the midst of rehearsals, we ran against that respectable Royalty Law which prevents amateurs from giving plays whether admittance be charged or not, whether or not they are given before a purely family audience such as our [sic.] always is. We debated legalities, and fumed protests, — and in the meantime the operettas for the Spring Festival got under way and the Dramatic Committee for the Spring Festival began to sketch plays and incidents and tableaux for the pageant, and we were whirled busily into rehearsals of Babylonian captivities, Sherwood Forest and the Anglo-Saxon serfs, the triumphs of the Continental Guilds, the founding of school communities in Russia, the life on the plantations in our own South, and the best way to symbolize one’s idea of a pleasant and profitable future.

Outside the field of straight plays whether classical, farcial [sic.], original or whatnot, we must not forget the evening in the gym when we ran a series of shadow pictures under Group IV’s leadership, accompanied by the reading of ballads, and extemporaneous historical shadowgraphs which followed.

The majestic (if one may say so) picturization [sic.] of the rescue of Captain John Smith by Pocahontas will haunt us mirthfully for a long time.

One morning in Assembly, the faculty gave themselves a treat by reading, with a slight gesture toward costume and stage business, Dunsany’s “Argimenes and the Unknown Warrior”. Another morning we gave Portraits (done to more-or-less music). Of these the most dramatic being done by Aunt Sally and Abe Nooger who really clutched the heart with the fire of their yearning and wistfulness as “Azucena and Manrico” in “Home to Our Mountains” from “Ill Tarovatore”.

We are not a school of dramatic expression, and considering all our other time-demands, we are to be congratulated on the amount of pleasure and value we have derived from our reading and discussion and production of plays this year.

Suan dePeyster Graves


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 21 & 32]




First and last there have been a good many plays at Manumit. In some of these, the parts have been carefully learned, and really finished performances given; such as Shaw’s “Arms and the Man” and “The Man of Destiny”; “The Game of Chess”, “Two Crooks and a Lady”, and the “Window Malone”. In others, the whole play has been created orally by the actors, and successfully staged without ever being committed to paper at all. The much enjoyed “Tom Sawyer” and “seventy Years Ago” were done in this way. And some plays have been done by a combination of these methods, — partly memorized, and partly improvised. In this way we did the “Taming of the Shrew”, “Winter’s Tale”, the semi-burlesqued “Tempest”, and the hurried but picturesque “Julius Caesar”.

The children themselves have written a good many plays.. The best of these, (entirely spontaneous) was written and managed in every detail by two eleven year old girls, and the whole taking only a week.

During the first two years of the school there was a monthly magazine edited by changing groups and contributed to by almost every student. One printed miscellany, the Manumiter, and two or three shortlived [sic.] news sheets, (chiefly facetious) were born and died during these two years. In the third year a group of students have maintained a regular weekly newspaper, the Tribune, and for three months another group published a weekly magazine, the Telescope. I think the writing done at Manumit is a little remarkable for its freedom and vigor. Some of it is over humorized [sic.], but none of it is stilted. Oral English at Manumit has always been inelegant and careless, but on the other hand it has always been bold and resourceful. Both in informal arguments and at school meetings there have always been plenty of ready and easy talkers, and many a time one may hear from a student an absorbed and well sustained piece of thinking aloud.

(Continued on page 32)

(Continued from page 21)

[note: this is as printed]

books have been missed and mourned. In time they will be replaced at least in large part. The students here have always done a great deal of very good reading; many, indeed, came here with already a wide (for their age) acquaintance with what is noble and profound in international literature. Comparatively free courses of reading in the Backgroounds [sic.] of Literature have been a good deal enjoyed. Reading plays in parts has been a favorite element of this — Shaw’s “Caesar and Cleopatra” had a great popularity last year.

We use the science of grammar to develop analytical reasoning; but spelling seems to be best learned involuntarily by students typewriting their contributions to the school periodicals.

Sarah N. Cleghorn.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 22 &30]




Work in the Social Science has been carried on with the assumption that whatever is valuable in the realm of the relations between people, will be best discovered by following up the interests of pupils in social matters. We determined at the outset, to follow no text or course of study. It was our purpose rather, to learn how to dig out facts for ourselves, — facts of importance to us. The effort was to make of the facts of the social sciences, tools to be used in living, rather than subjects to be studied.

At the beginning of the year, three courses, were offered to students, following out this idea. The first was an attempt to estimate the whole progress of mankind, to discover what was of value for us today. The second was an experiment in the learning of the facts of American History by studying the backgrounds of modern American problems that interest us. The third was a course for free-lances, who were ready to take up any problem of interest to them, any problem in the social field. The two latter groups have continued throughout the year. The first mentioned group was dropped at the time of the inauguration of the group plan in Manumit.

The American History Class has had an interesting and varied progress. Between the opening of school and Christmas, it spent its time in investigating such questions as the American Race Problem Crime in the United States, and Why We Have Wars. These studies proved extremely interesting. Incidentally, a background of historical information began to accumulate. As a part of the investigation of crime, the class made a trip to Sing Sing Penitentiary, reporting on what they saw, and making recommendations for a better handling of crime.

But, members of the class felt that the procedure was not getting at the dry and dull facts of history rapidly enough. Con-

(Cont’d on page 30)

(Continued from page 22)

sequently, at their demand, the proce3dure was altered. Since Christmas the class has been studying American History in chronological manner, comparing various text books, discovering relationships between events, but all in preparation for passing the omnipresent Regents Examinations. We expect to be well stuffed with knowledge by the end of the year. Another class in geography has been following a similar method. They are taking a trip across the United States, studying maps, books, and many folders with which we have been very kindly supplied by Railroads, Chambers of Commerce, Real Estate Agents, etc.

The freelancers, consisting largely of members of Group Six have followed the direction their name suggests. They have studied the Far Eastern question, the Near East and various areas of friction over the world. In the Fall they staged also, a mock trial of one of their number, — for murder. More recently their interest has turned toward questions of the relationship of races, biology and genetics as applied to man, and the application of these studies to modern political and social questions. Would that there were opportunity for more free-lancing.

Our work has been aided by the gift of a number of labor magazines to be put along with magazines from other sources. We have been especially eager to give this point of view a hearing. But, the teacher of social studies must be especially careful to avoid an insistence upon any one point of view in interpreting social questions. Every point of view, that held by labor, along with the others, must stand or fall on its own merits. Especially in this field, the student must learn to thin k clearly and critically.

On the whole, the Social Science department has attempted to tend away from a study of text books, to a study of the intensely interesting phenomena of actual life. Books are often useful as tools for an anlysing [sic.] life. But after all, it the life itself which is the real thing. At Manumit more than anywhere, social studies should be a consideration of the ways in which actual people, actually get along with each other.

William W. Biddle.


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 23 & 34]


[two photographs]




When the students came back to the farm last September Sid Henderson and Heinz were on deck to give them the Manumit hand shake but Martin Beardsley had gone back to Manhattan and a Vermont farmer from the Nutmeg state had come to take Martin’s place.

For the first few weeks daily recreation was divided between the fascinating game of potato hunting and the annual corn cutting tournament. Both of these favorites [sic.] pastimes closed a very successful season. About this time the scarcity of steam heat made itself felt and the farmers were called upon to lend a hand and two horses to the noble work of chopping and hauling wood.

With the help of red-blooded boys, especially Group Five, we harvested one of the best crops of 17 inch ice that Manumit Farm every put under sawdust. We cut and drew those glassy blocks almost every day from January 24 to February 5. The same day that the last load went in Sid went to Cornell for the Farmers Week sessions.

Twice during the winter the farm was snowed in for a short time and the old Ford truck had a little rest each time while Dolly and Molly went on the regular milk trip to Patterson and once the truck had such a cold in its lungs that it would’nt [sic.] start.

(Continued on page 34)

(Continued from page 25)

The snow storms made several good straw rides possible and Sparky played the part of the Man on the Box with the dapple Greys stepping lively on the icy spots.

Altho [sic.] the pastoral life of Manumit has been mainly tranquil and pleasant there have been times of sad misfortune. Our Whistler whistled her last on January 3. Moses, the bull despairing of entrance into the Land of Promise on the other side of his high fence, drew nigh unto death and was mercifully dispatched on February 11. The dogs prompted perhaps by the light rations they received from the kitchen during Miss Loller’s Christmas vacation, acquired a taste for fresh pork and — well the two porkers were fatally injured.

Of course there were the frequent little accidents of horses left loose to kick and bite each other, of doors left open for cows and calves to go where they shouldn’t, of water frozen and pipes burst, of perils of storm and flood and of Leonard Fidler’s persisttant [sic.] search for excitement.

Finally comes the last sad event of all, the sale of the horses, the cattle and the farm machinery. This then is the last chapter of the Records of Manumit Farm so it seems. Nearly everything that makes farm life is gone. Only Nellie remains to wear the saddle and draw the cultivator. The milk and eggs will come from strange cows and hens who never breathed the free air of Manumit. Loet us hope there may some time be a second book of Manumit Farm written more grandly, more triumphantly than the one now closing.

The Agricultural Department, had it continued to the end of the school year, would probably have granted diplomas to John Fincke, Master of Calf Science, Byron Milkmore Linville and John Overhawley, Masters of Milk Squirting. We would pass Ted Rosenthal, Betty Conwit, Nancy Muste and June Lostar on to the second year class in Dairy Arts and Crafts. Douglas Thompson and L. Fidler, D. D. would doubtless have been awarded the annual prize for excellence in hay-mow tumbling and barn floor athletics.

May we now rise and sing,

Oh the farmer, the farmer,

Oh the farmer, Farmer Gray.

Hay! Hay! Farmer Gray

Took another load away.

George Hamilton


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 26-27 & 33]



– IN – [photograph]



A [sic.] the beginning of the year sports were in a slump. This was probably due to the lack of acqauaintances [sic.].

In the waning baseball season only one game was played. With the end of the diamond season came the call of the gridiron. The students and the faculty complied with a will. Every afternoon, Bill Bidde [sic], late center of Pomona College, could be seen imparting his knowledge of the art of football to the students. Contests were played with interest from which several of the players suffered minor injuries, of which they were quite proud. No con tests of great importance were indulged in. Nevertheless students and faculty alike got a kick out of it.

Next came the basketball season, which arrived with a rush. The beginning of the season was spent mostly in practicing for future inter-group meets. However there were frequent pickup games played evenings in which everyone had a chance to show what was in them.

On February the second a challenge was sent from Group Four (Manumit Wildcats) to Group Five (White Elephants). The challenge was accepted and the date of the game set for February


The eighteenth. It was in between these two dates that Group Four played a practice game with Group six, (Pot-Boilers). Practice game though it was, great enthusiasm was shown by both players and spectators, especially when the Wildcats came through to an unexpected victory by the count of 10 to 9.

The night of the big game came with both teams confident of victory. The whistle blew. From then until it blew at the end of the game, the White Elephants took the aggressive. But the Wildcats fought under the blows of the heavier animal to the tune of 8-2. Most people believed that the White Elephants victory was due to their large advantage in weight and height, but just the same they deserved a lot of credit.

After the White Elephant-Wildcat game everyone expected Group Six to challenge the victors. But the expected challenge was not sent. Thus basketball passed.

All through this season hockey games were enthusiastically indulged in.

Early in March the first signs of baseball were shown, in

(Continued on page 33)



(Continued from page 27)

the form of students throwing the ball around, to prepare for the campaign. It was late in March that the Manumit Tribune began to form plans for the first faculty-student game of the season. In April the teams began the long practice grinds, but due to injuries of a few of the players the game was not played until May sixth. The game started at 2:45, but the festivities began about two o’clock.

Leon Cartmell performed the time-warn custom of throwing out the first ball of the season.

The game was a one sided affair, lasting only six innings on account of school. After the first inning the students took the lead and held it to the end. The final score was Students 10 – Faculty 3.

Another faculty-student game is expected before the end of the season, also there is a possibility of a game with Brookwood College.

It is the earnest wish that Manumit could enter into inter-scholastic contests in those sports in which it is most proficient.


Ralph J. Taylor

Gordon J. Linville


[Source: “The Manumit Year Book – 1927” – Excerpt, page 28-29]




Helen Danzis – New York; 2 years at Manumit

Helen has visited us several times this year. She is now studying in the

Ethical Culture School.

Elsie Fisher – New York; 1 and a half-years at Manumit

After a rather exciting time in Florida this fall Elsie returned to New York

where she is now studying and working

Edith Fisher – New York; 1 and a half years at Manumit.

Edith is now in Astoria where she is doubtless working hard at her studies

in a Public High School.

Gene Carpenter – Massachusetts; 1 year and 2 months at Manumit.

Gene is mow living in Boston where she attends a Public School.

Hilda Marcovitz – Massachusetts; 1 year at Manumit.

Hilda too has turned into a Bostonia.

Patricia Wood – New York; 1 year at Manumit.

Pat is most likely having a lovely time in White Plains.

Jeanette Krauss – New York; one-half year at Manumit.

Elizabeth Swing – 1 year at Manumit.

Grace Ross – New York; 1 year at Manumit.

Betty Lefkowitz – New York; 1 and one-half years at Manumit.

Betty is now attending a school in Elmhurst.

Mary Fuller – New York; 2 years at Manumit.

Mary is studying at the “City and Country” School.

Miriam Wolfson – New York; 3 months at Manumit.

She is going to school in New York.

Pauline Bridge – New Jersey; 1 year at Manumit.

Joan Bridge – New Jersey; 1 year at Manumit.

Joan is probably with her sister.

Tessie Marshal – New York; 1 year at Manumit.

Tessie is attending school in White Plains.

Mary Soltis – Pennsylvanioa; 1 half year at Manumit.

Fannie Cleghorn – Flordia; 1 week at Manumit.

Eric Warbasse – New York; 1 and a half years at Manumit.

Eric is reported to be spending his days in Brooklyn.

Robert Vossler –New York; one-half year at Manumit.

An agricultural school is what Bob really fancies.


Karl Belme – New York; one-half year at Manumit.

After a short visit home to Porto Rico Karl returned to New York.

Edward Conger – New York; one-half year at Manumit.

Ed is reported residing on a farm near here.

Wallace Rogers – France; 1 year and two weeks at Manumit.

Apparently his native land is old and mild for him. He had to migrate to

France to go to school.

Ivan Rosenthal – New Yuork; 1 year at Manumit.

Ivan is at present a student at the Friends School

Morton Wolson – New York; 1 year at Manumit.

Morton is somewhere in New York city.

Frank Maguire – New York; 1 year at Manumit.

Herbert Goldberg – New York; 1 year at Manumit.

Herbert has gone into the world of competition.

Gilbert Miles – New York; 1 year at Manumit.

George Bill Patterson – Vermont; 1 year at Manumit.

George came up here for a few days when school opened this year. He is

most likely studying in Vermont.

Samuel Zausner – New York; 2 years at Manumit.

Sam has returned to the bright lights of public school.

Samuel Pearl – New Jersey; one-half year at Manumit.

Sam has returned to Stelton from whence he came.

Benjamin Fincke – New York; 2 and one-half year at Manumit.

Ben is now attending a school in Connecticut.

Maurice Lefkowitz – New Yorki; one-half year at Manumit.

Eugene Soloff – New York; 2 years at Manumit.

Gene does not like the public schools.

Andre Tutyshkin – Russia; one-half year at Manumit.

Andre went back to Russia.

Simon Wilson – New York; 1 and one-third years at Manumit.

Albert Swing – Ohio; 1 year at Manumit.

When last heard of Albert was at Antioch College.

John Soltis – Pennsylvania; one-half year.

Robert Davidson – New York; three months.

Charles Clarke – New Jersey; one year.

Charles is doubtless attending a school in New Jersey.

Richard Clark – New Jersey; one year.

Richard too is in New Jersey.

Sidney Goff – New York; three months.

Sidney is in New York.

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